", Till, when he reached the setting-place of the sun, he found it setting in a muddy spring, and found a people thereabout. ", ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim, Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad), Safety of high-energy particle collision experiments, Existential risk from artificial intelligence, Self-Indication Assumption Doomsday argument rebuttal, Self-referencing doomsday argument rebuttal, List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events, List of apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dhu_al-Qarnayn&oldid=991352230, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, They ask thee concerning Zul-qarnain Say, "I will rehearse to you something of his story. The Syriac manuscripts were translated into English in 1889 by E. A. Wallis Budge. Yet others believed that Khidr was his cousin and was a flag-holder of his army and surpassed him in drinking the Spring of Life. The rather short Quranic account of the story of Dhu l-Qarnayn is a mysterious story of the Qur'an appearing after two other mysterious stories in Sura al-Kahf: the story of the Seven Sleepers (People of Kahf) and the story of Musa (a) (Moses) and Khidr. Furthermore, Cyrus' conquests:16 also align with the account of Dhu al-Qarnayn as Cyrus was also a great King who expanded his empire in three directions, excluding the South. The rabbis told them to ask Muhammad about three things, one of them "about a man who travelled and reached the east and the west of the earth, what was his story". In recent sources, and in particular, in contemporary scholarships, the views were informed by archeological and linguistic findings as well as some ancient sources of history. It must be clarified that there is a difference of opinion among the historians and commentators whether Dhu’l-Qarnayn was same as Alexander of Rome. The name appears three times in the Qur'an. 'Dhu'l Qarnayn' as History In the Islamic tradition of scholarship, it is widely acknowledged that the Qur'anic theme of 'Dhu'l Qarnayn' has multiple layers of meanings- as of course, a narrative of 'history'; as a metaphor of ideal statecraft/just ruler-ship and as 'prophecy'.  Modern Islamic apocalyptic writers, holding to a literal reading, put forward various explanations for the absence of the wall from the modern world, some saying that Gog and Magog were the Mongols and that the wall is now gone, others that both the wall and Gog and Magog are present but invisible. Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it set in a spring of murky water: near it he found a people: We said: "O Zul-qarnain! Dhul-Qarnayn demonstrates humility, an essential quality of an ideal leader. Concrete meanings: the first group of such views provide concrete grounds for the appellation, such him having horns and something similar. For example, during his life, two generations of people disappeared, or he reigned both in Iran and Rome, or he found his way both to the eastern and the western parts of the world, or he was a nobleman both through his father and his mother, or that he saw in a dream that he held two sides of the sun, or he was endowed with the knowledge of the exterior and the interior. The story of Dhul-Qarnayn (in Arabic ذو القرنين, literally "The Two-Horned One", also transliterated as Zul-Qarnain or Zulqarnain) is found in the 18th Surah of the Qur'an, al-Kahf (the Cave). The story of Dhul-Qarnayn (in English "The Two-Horned One"), mentioned in the Quran, is in fact a reference to Alexander the Great. was aware of the works of Zul-Qarnayn, and, before he could do anything and reach any place, Allah knew his fate and taught him and lead him what to do. The view was first developed by western scholars in the middle of the 13th/19th century, although it found its way among Persian readers about 60 years later through a different route. Shi'a exegetes were mostly inclined to this view by appealing to this hadith, and thus, they did not inquire about the identity of Dhu l-Qarnayn. The story of Dhu al-Qarnayn is related in Surah 18 of the Quran, al-Kahf ("The Cave"). Elsewhere the Quran tells how the end of the world would be signaled by the release of Gog and Magog from behind the wall, and other apocalyptic writings report their destruction by God in a single night would usher in the Day of Resurrection (Yawm al-Qiyāmah). Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo, Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr). His story is recounted in the chapter of the Quran named "The Cave". Do but help me with strength (of men), I will set between you and them a bank. The fourth story that Allah Almighty mentions in Quran in this particular Surah is the story of great king Dhul-Qarnayn who travelled all across the world to help the people who were in need and spread good wherever he went. Dhul-Qarnayn motivates the people to help themselves rather than allowing them to accept a handout. , While the Syriac Legend references the horns of Alexander, it consistently refers to the hero by his Greek name, not using a variant epithet.  Among Western academics, Brannon Wheeler has argued that the alleged similarities between Alexander romances and the Dhu al-Qarnayn story are actually based on later commentaries of the Qur'an rather than the Qur'an itself. :16, According to Muslim records, the Dhu al-Qarnayn story was revealed on the inquisition of Jews who held a high opinion of Cyrus and is also honoured in the Bible; the "He of the Two Horns" (lit. In other words, the sun appeared to rise and set to him. According to Ibn Kathir, the first Dhu l-Qarnayn was the son of the first Roman Caesar who was a progeny of Sam (Shem) the son of Nuh (a) and was a righteous person and a just king, and Khidr was his prime minister. Thus, the story of Dhul-Qarnain holds both a historical and spiritual significance and hence, warrants particular focus in research. Then We shall gather them together in one gathering. On this view, Gog and Magog refer to the Moguls. Al-Tha'labi found this view plausible. The legend allegedly went through much further elaboration in subsequent centuries before eventually finding its way into the Quran through a Syrian version. A Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly: This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 16:38. There are basic disagreements in Islamic sources about his identity, the historical period in which he lived, and the details of his life. The issue of "Dhu l-Qarnayn" in the Islamic culture originates from the Qur'an. , The Sufi poet Rumi (Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī, 1207-1273), perhaps the most famous of medieval Persian poets, described Dhu al-Qarnayn's eastern journey. Thus were they made powerless to scale it or to dig through it. Thus, Allah admires the actions of Zul-Qarnayn and He shows that He is pleased with his deeds. Dhul-Qarnayn (English) Proper noun Dhul-Qarnayn Islam - The ruler... Dhulbahante (English) Proper noun Dhulbahante A clan in Somalia. The hero ascends Mount Qof, the "mother" of all other mountains (identified with the Alborz mountains on the northern border of Iran), which is made of emerald and forms a ring encircling the entire Earth with veins under every land.  Wheeler accepts the possibility but points out the absence of such a theory by classical Muslim commentators. This view was propounded and advocated by Iranian historians of the 4th/10th and 5th/11th centuries, such as Hamza Isfahani and Abu Rayhan Biruni. There are basic disagreements in Islamic sources about his identity, the historical period in which he lived, and the details of his life. He did not support either party of the disagreement, though he believed that there are Quranic verses which might demonstrate Dhu l-Qarnayn's prophethood, and so, he seems to be inclined to the view that Dhu l-Qarnayn was a prophet.  However, the supposed influence of the Syriac legends on the Quran have been questioned based on dating inconsistencies and missing key motifs. He is honored in Yemeni poems. In general, the popularity of some myths about Alexander in the early Islamic period and some similarities between such myths and the Quranic story of Dhu l-Qarnayn as well as the sanctification of Alexander in Alexandria during the Hellenistic period by the first Christian communities led to the identification of Dhu l-Qarnayn with Alexander by Muslim exegetes and historians. As for who exactly Dhul-Qarnayn was in history, there are differences of opinion amongst historians and commentators of the Quran. Either punish or show them kindness.". According to these verses, some people ask the Prophet (s) about Dhu l-Qarnayn, and the Prophet's (s) response was briefly as follows: According to hadiths concerning the Asbab al-Nuzul (occasions on which verses are revealed), the inquirers were some Jews or polytheists of Mecca who were encouraged by the Jews to ask the Prophet (s) about Dhu l-Qarnayn and other issues in order to test his prophethood. This is simply false. Call Now: China+86-737-6100242 or 6100642 Canada:+1-604-210-9745 According to authentic traditions it wasn’t so. In order to solve some discrepancies with regard to Dhu l-Qarnayn, Ibn Kathir believed that there were people known as Alexander and Dhu l-Qarnayn, tracing the errors of earlier authors to regarding these two persons as identical. This page was last edited on 6 August 2018, at 10:03. Dhu al-Qarnayn, , Lit. Proper noun (Islam) The ruler who built the wall that keeps Gog and Magog from attacking mankind. Moreover, there is no historical evidence that Alexander ever constructed a dam as characterized in the Qur'an. Dhul-Qarnayn is regarded by some Muslims as a prophet, while other say that he was "a friend of God". In his travel to the northern Persia, Cyrus was asked by people there to construct an iron dam over the Darial Gorge, located in the Caucasus Mountains. Lo! Al-Qurtubi wrote that Dhu l-Qarnayn is said to be a chosen prophet with whom God conquered the Earth and he allegedly met an angel called "Rabaqil". He said: "Whoever doth wrong, him shall we punish; then shall he be sent back to his Lord; and He will punish him with a punishment unheard-of (before). Hamdi Yazır and Mehmet Vehbi hold the view that Dhul-Qarnayn is a prophet acting upon the form of address 'O Dhul-Qarnayn!' This concept is part of the following classification in the ontology : Concept (root) Living Creation. Some people suggested that he was contemporary with, and a student of, Aristotle. Dhu l-Qarnayn (Arabic: ذوالقَرنَین) is the title of a character mentioned in the Qur'an. However, given other meanings of "qarn" such as hair, the crown or upper part of the head, the peripheries of the sun, a period of time equal to 30 or 80 years, and people of a period, and given the person to whom the title applies, different reasons have been offered for why the person in question is called "Dhu l-Qarnayn". - till, when he had made it a fire, he said: "Bring me molten copper to pour thereon.". Till, when he came between the two mountains, he found upon their hither side a folk that scarce could understand a saying. On that day We shall leave them to surge like waves on one another: the trumpet will be blown, and We shall collect them all together. The Quran narrates the story of how Allah establishes Dhul-Qarnayn as a powerful ruler on earth and allows the king the … Moreover, the kings did not conquer the world, and none of them constructed an iron dam. Ibn Kathir's tafsir on the Quran verses about Dhul-Qarnayn clearly asserts a flat Earth theory. , According to Bietenholz, the story of Dhu al-Qarnayn has its origins in legends of Alexander the Great current in the Middle East in the early years of the Christian era. And We knew all concerning him. in the following verse: “O Dhul-Qarnayn! Others believed that he was not a prophet; rather he was a righteous person and a just king. ", "But whoever believes, and works righteousness, he shall have a goodly reward, and easy will be his task as we order it by our command. Dhul Qarnayn trapped a people behind two mountains using a dam or gate of copper and iron These people are constantly digging from this trapped location until Allah allows them to escape and they will wreak havoc on humanity. Until, when he reached (a tract) between two mountains, he found, beneath them, a people who scarcely understood a word. We said: "O Dhu'l-Qarneyn! The identity of Gog and Magog and the specification of the geographical location of the dam constructed by Dhu l-Qarnayn to obstruct Gog and Magog are key to the identification of Dhu l-Qarnayn. After the Qur'an, the contents of different sources regarding Dhu l-Qarnayn were based on fictions and earlier views, although in some periods, authors tried to adopt a critical approach to such contents and to precisely identify Dhu l-Qarnayn. The word qarn means a horn, as also a generation or … The sun did not rise nor set but Dhul Qarnayn actually found it rising and setting. , Dhu al-Qarnayn the traveller was a favourite subject for later writers. Before that, in a dream by the prophet Danial, a ram with two horns appears which is referred to in Hebrew as "קרנים" (qarnim). The greatest source of concern for Muslim scholars was the identification of Dhu l-Qarnayn with Alexander the Great whose character led to different and even contradictory views about Dhu l-Qarnayn. On that day we shall present hell to the disbelievers, plain to view. Those whose eyes were hoodwinked from My reminder, and who could not bear to hear. He was a polytheist and his prime minister was Aristotle. He was the one who provided … The passage from the tafsir can be found in section 1.1 of the article (Dhul-Qarnayn in early Islamic literature). 2 – Dhu’l-Qarnayn who is mentioned in the Qur’aan is not Alexander the Macedonian or Greek who built Alexandria.  Some have argued that the origins of the Quranic story lies in the Syriac Alexander Legend, but others disagree citing dating inconsistencies and missing key elements. Yet, taking into consideration the attributes of Dhul-Qarnayn that the Quran has mentioned, one can conclude that Dhul-Qarnayn was actually Cyrus the Great. Thus, information about Dhu l-Qarnayn in Islamic and Iranian sources is derived from historical sources and myths about Alexander. Dhu al-Hijjah translation in English-Arabic dictionary. : "He of the Two Horns"), also spelled Zu al-Qarnayn, appears in the Quran, Surah Al-Kahf (18), Ayahs 83-101 as one who travels to east and west and erects a wall between mankind and Gog and Magog (called Ya'juj and Ma'juj).
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